editing disabled

Concept Visualized

A research concept randomly selected from a research article that was reviewed in class discussion was re-interpreted in a visual way to try to capture meaning that made sense on an individual level and could be effectively communicated to others.

"AVERAGE"



Visual Bibliographic Analysis


This task involves designing a structure that identifies the theorists, philosophers, practitioners, and any other sources that inform a student’s emerging research identity. The source of the idea is found in thinking about how a bibliography can be visualized as a system of theories and practices that are indexed according to areas of content, ideas, and interests. In other words, the task was to create a referencing circle/network/community, that is content-based (rather than alphabetical). The bibliographic structure is to be presented as a self-contained entity.

Andrea: Bibliographic Themes Housed around Common Identity.


Text-based bibliography

References
Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and Visual Perception (Expanded ed.). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. (Original work published 1954)


Arnheim, R. (1989). Thoughts on Art Education. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Trust.


Atkinson, D. (2002). Remarks on the purpose of drawing. Journal of Art and Design Education, 21(3), 194-196.


Beittel, K. R. (1972). Mind and context in the art of drawing:An empirical and speculative account of the drawing process and the drawing seies and of the contexts in which they occur. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc.


Changeux, J.-P. (2005). Creation, Art and the Brain. In J.-P. Changeux, A. Damasio, Y. Christen, & W. Singer (Eds.), Neurobiology of Human Values (pp. 1-10). Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
the human brain...always projects onto the world, in a spontaneous and internally generated fashion, mental representations that it tries to test against an external reality that is intrinsically devoid of meaning. this projection, as a generator of mental forms, represents an essential predisposition of the human brain towrd creation.“p1


Csikszentmaihalyi, M. (1997). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. (Original work published 1996)
on the relationship of creativity to specific domains, and the gatekeepers to those domains: importance of models of creativity.


Dewey, J. (2005). Art as Experience. London: Penguin Books. (Original work published 1934)
For to perceive, a beholder must create his own experience. And his creation must include relations comparable to those which the original producer underwent.... Without an act of recreation the object is not perceived as a work of art.” (p. 54)


Dubery, F., & Willats, J. (1972). Drawing systems. London: Studio Vista.

Efland, A. (2002). Art and Cognition: Integrating the visual arts in the curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press.
the function of the arts throughout human cultural history has been and continues to be the task of ”reality construction.“...Therefore, the purpose for teaching the arts is to contribute to the understanding of the social and cultural landscape that each individual inhabits.” p.171

Eisner, E. W. (1989). Foreword. In Thoughts on art education (pp. 3-8). Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust.
The gist of Arnheim’s message it that vision itself is a function of intelligence, that perception is a cognitive event, that interpretation and meaning are an indivisible aspect of seeing, and that the educational process can thwart or foster such human abilities.” p7

Ferrari, P. F., & Gallese, V. (2007). Mirror neurons and intersubjectivity. In S. Braten (Ed.), On Being Moved: From Mirror Neurons to Empathy (pp. 73-88). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
our nervous system has been constructed in such a way that it enables us to capture others’ living experiences just by watching them.” p73
our capacity to experience and directly understand the emotional and tactile experience of others could be mediated by embodied simulation, that is, by the externally triggered activation of some of the same neural networks underpinning our own emotion and tactile sensations.” p85

Frones, I. (2007). On threories of dialogue, self and society: redefining socialization and the aquisition of meaning in light of the intersubjective matrix. In S. Braten (Ed.), On Being Moved: From Mirror Neurons to Empathy (pp. 73-88). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
The idea of being close to another rests on the other being different, the romantic idea of becoming as one is based on being two. ...The more we know about others, the further, deeper, and more different the other becomes, while at the same time becoming closer....The other is...always there at the centre of my own subjectivity and as the basic mechanism in self-objectivation. Elaborations of the other is the development of own self. The other as a mystery is a recognition of the complex and mysterious self. ” p214

Garner, S. (Ed.). (2008). Writing on Drawing: Essays on drawing practice and research. Bristol, UK: Intellect Books.

Goldin-Meadow, S. (2005). Hearing Gesture: How our hands help us think. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
we nay be altering the way we think just by moving our hands.” p145
the evidence is mounting in favor of the view that gesture does more than just reflect thought–it my shape it as well.” p246
by facilitating the representation of ideas that are different from those expressed in speech, gesture is helping to create an unstable state. That unstable state requires resolution and thus leads to change (not always to progress, but to some sort of movement). We are still far from proving to everyone’s satisfaction (even my own) that gesture has a hand in creating instability rather than merely reflecting it. Yet it is a viable hypotheses that deserves our future attention.” p247

Goldstone, R. L., & Wilensky, U. (2008, October 1). Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17(4), 465-516. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10508400802394898
many of the most noteworthy advances of science have involved finding deep principles shared by seemingly dissimilar phenomena.” p470
cross-domain applicability of complex systems principles is valuable for psychological investigations because it allows for a natural examination of the extent of transfer of a domain-general principle to different domains. Instead of creating word problems with different cover stories, or abstract schemas that can be instantiated with different insight problems, one can select diverse domains that naturally and intrinsically instantiate principles of complex adaptive systems. Systems are inherently rather than arbitrarily connected to their general principles (Bassok, 1996).p477


Gombrich, E. H. (1972). Art and Illusion: Astudy in the psychology of pictoral representation (2nd ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1960)

Iacoboni, M. (2009). Mirroring People: The science of empathy and how we connect with others. New York: Picador. (Original work published 2008)
how mirror neurons were discovered, how motor neurons are activited when we observe the actions of others, and how the mirror neuron activity functions to uncover the goals and intentions of others (and how the emotions of others are intuited in the process.


Interview with Joe. (2002, January). Pixar Artist’s Corner. Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Pixar website: http://www.pixar.com/artistscorner/joe/interview.html
Pixar storyboard artist interview, who only uses the computer for e-mail!


Interview with Ricky. (2001, September). Pixar Artist’s Corner. Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Pixar website: http://www.pixar.com/artistscorner/ricky/interview.html
Pixar visual development artist interview, who only uses the computer for e-mail!


Jessup, H. (2008). Graphite and Pixels: Drawing at Pixar. In M. Treib (Ed.), Drawing/thinking:confronting an electronic age (pp. 170-181). London: Routledge.

Klee, P. (1953). Pedagogical sketchbook (S. Moholy-Nagy, Trans.). New York: Frederick A. Praeger. (Original work published 1925)

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic Books.
A major functino of the embodied mind is empathic. From birth, we have the capacity to imitate others, to vividly imagine being another person, doing what that person does, experiencing wht that person experiences. The capacity for imaginative projection is a vital cognitive faculty. Experientially, it is a form of ‘transcendence.” Through it, one can experience something akin to “getting out of our bodies”–yet it is very much a bodily capacity“ p565


Learning, arts, and the brain. (2008). Retrieved from The Dana Consortium Report website: http://www.dana.org/news/publications/publication.aspx?id=10760
Learning, Arts, and the Brain, a study three years in the making, is the result of research by cognitive neuroscientists from seven leading universities across the United States. In the Dana Consortium study, released in March 2008, researchers grappled with a fundamental question: Are smart people drawn to the arts or does arts training make people smarter?”

Levinas, E. (1999). Alterity and Transcendence (M. B. Smith, Trans.). New York: Columbia University Press.
But that face facing me, in its expression – in its mortality –summons me, demands me, requires me: as if the invisible death faced by the face of the other --pure alterity, seperate, somehow, from any whole -- were ‘my business.” As if, unknown by the other whom already, in the nakedness of his face, it concerns it ‘regarded me’ before its confrontation with me, before the death that stares me, myself, in the face...It is precisely in that recalling of me to my responsibility by the face that summons me, that demands me, that requires me – it is in that calling into question -- that the other is my neighbor.“ p24-25

McWhinnie, H. (1983). A Review of the Research on the Teaching of Drawing. In Drawing for the Schools: A Conference. Baltimore, Maryland: Maryland Insitute, College of Art.

Milner, M. (1957). On not being able to paint. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc.

Panofsky, E. (1991). Perspective as Symbolic Form (C. S. Wood, Trans.). New York: Zone Books. (Original work published 1927)

Papastathopoulos, S., & Kugiumutzakis, G. (2007). The intersubjectivity of imagination. In S. Braten (Ed.), On Being Moved: From Mirror Neurons to Empathy (pp. 219-233). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
imagination can no longer be dealt as an individual, private, locked in the head faculty. Instead we wish to promote the idea of the fundamentally dialogical and intersubjective nature of imagination...Through imagination the absent is made present. ” p 221
Ir is in virtue of the activity of the whole person that meaning is perceived, through one’s corporeal action in the world. ”

Reynolds, P. H. (2003). The dot. Cambridge, Mass: Candlewick Press.
A picture book that encourages readers to “make your mark,” and is a wonderful introduction to the concepts of drawing as gesture, the autographic mark, peer-mentorship, visual arts practice as research and teachable moment-as-nudge.


Ritchart, R., & Perkins, D. (2005). Learning to Think: The challenges of teaching thinking. In K. J. Holyoak & R. G. Morrison (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (pp. 775-802). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
the prospects of transfer depend on a match between the features foregraounded during initial encodin and the kinds of features called for in the target context.” p. 789
Transfer must be designed deliberately into interventions by highlighting key features of the situation that need attention, promoting reflective abstraction of underlying principles, and providing practice across multiple contexts.” p.795

Rizzolatti, G., & Craighero, L. (2005). Mirror Neuron: a neurological approach to empathy. In J.-P. Changeux, A. Damasio, Y. Christen, & W. Singer (Eds.), Neurobiology of Human Values (pp. 107-124). Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
How humans motorically respond to the actions and emotions of others, literally feeling another’s pain
how “a ‘chained’ organization of motor acts plus the mirror mechanism enable the observer to understand the intention behind an action (the ‘why’ of an action) by observing the first motor act of an action....enables the observer to understand the emotions of others.” p.107


Rodrigues, A. L. (2009, October 8). Invention, intervention and interaction: Drawing and the works of Helena Almeida, Lourdes de Castro, Gabriela Albergaria and Inês Teixeira. In S. Garner (Chair), Thinking through

Drawing: the Drawing Research Network conference. Symposium conducted at Drawing for Learning, Engagement and Enjoyment: An International Conference, 7-11 October 2009, Cochrane Theatre, Southampton Row, London. Retrieved from http://www.drawing.org.uk/
I have come to believe that the action that brings a drawing into existence is present, in the drawing itself, in an unavoidable way, and its presence is also perceived, or received, by the observer. It is because we transfer so much of our mind and body identity into the action of drawing, that the understanding of this evidence makes drawing a unique communication: personal because of the presence of subconscious actions, and clear enough to be able to convey complex ideas that surpass barriers of language and cultures.” p2

Stafford, B. M. (2007). Echo Objects: The cognitive work of images. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
given that our neuronal responses are largely the result of autopoietic processes, compressive graphic systems snap us to attention: they make us awake and aware of the present. Thus they model how stimuli self-assemble and summon us to the analogous high-order labor of unification. In this nonlinear, combinatorial process, compound images demand that we consciously pull ourselves together much as the electrical signals delivered by the eyes’ rods and cones are patched together in to synoptic perceptions.” 207
the floundering humanities-- complaining that no one knows what they are or what purpose they still serve in peoples’ lives--might well discover a vew compass in emerging models of neural functioning, perception science, and theories of biological evolution.” 208

Steinhart, P. (2004). The Undressed Art: Why We Draw. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Thislewood, D. (Ed.). (1992).
Drawing Research and Development. London: Longman.
Treib, M. (Ed.). (2008).
Drawing/Thinking: Confronting an electronic age. London: Routledge.
This book is compiled by a professor of architecture and landscape design at UC Berkeley, as such, it has a particularly practical orientation toward the usefullness of drawing as a means of thinking through. It “examines how we represent, observe, consider, and imagine.” It’s contributors discuss how the act of drawing is still relevant in a dgital world.


Treib, M. (2008). Introduction. In M. Treib (Ed.), Drawing/thinking:confronting an electronic age (pp. viiii-xi). London: Routledge.

Treib, M. (2008). Paper or plastic?Five thoughts on the subject of drawing. In M. Treib (Ed.), Drawing/thinking:confronting an electronic age (pp. 12-27). London: Routledge.

Tversky, B. (2005). Visuospatial Reasoning. In K. J. Holyoak & R. G. Morrison (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (pp. 209-242). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
In early stages of design, designers often do not want to commit to the details of a solution, only the general outline, leaving open many possibilities ; gradually, they will fill in the details . Perhaps more important, skilled designers are able to get new ideas by reexamining their own sketches, by having a conversation with their sketches, bouncing ideas off them ( e . g ., Goldschmidt, 1994; Schon, 1983 ; Suwa & Tversky,1997 ; Suwa,

Tversky, Gero, & Purcell, 2001). They may construct sketches with one set of ideas in mind, but on later reexamination they see new configurations and relations that generate new design ideas . The productive cycle between reexamining and reinterpreting is revealed in the protocol of one expert architect . When he saw a new configuration in his own design, he was more likely to invent a new design idea ; similarly, when he invented a new design idea, he was more likely to see a new configuration in his sketch ( Suwa et al ., 2oo1 ; Figure i o . 7 ). Underlying these unintended discoveries in sketches is a cognitive skill termed constructive perception, which consists of two independent processes : a perceptual one, mentally reorganizing the sketch, and a conceptual one, relating the new organization to some design purpose ( Suwa & Tversky, 2003 ). Participants adept at generating multiple interpretations of ambiguous sketches excelled at the perceptual ability of finding hidden figures and at the cognitive ability of finding remote meaningful associations, yet these two abilities were uncorrelated . Expertise affects the kinds of inferences designers are able to make from their sketches . Novice designers are adept at perceptual inferences, such as seeing proximity and similarity relations . Expert designers are also adept at functional inferences, such as ” seeing “ the flow of traffic or the changes in light from sketches. p231



Tversky, B., & Martin-Hand, B. (2009, January). Embodied and disembodied cognition: Spatial perspective-taking. Cognition, 110(1), 124-129.
The implication of action elicits spontaneous spatial perspective-taking, seemingly in the service of understanding the other’s actions.”
Much has been said about embodied cognition (e.g., Barsalou, Niedenthal, Barbey, & Ruppert, 2003; Borghi, Glenberg, & Kaschak, 2004). The present results show that the deep meaning of embodied cognition is that it enables disembodied thought (e.g., Tversky, 2005). Here, people overcame their own embodied position in space to take an imaginary one, they escaped the entrapment of minds in bodies and bodies in views on space through imagination. What’s surprising and significant is that people spontaneously take other perspectives despite the very real presence of their own.”

Van Sommers, P. (1984). Drawing and cognition: Descriptive and experiemental studies of graphic production processes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Willats, J. (1997). Art and representation: New principles in the analysis of pictures. Pinceton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Winnicott, D. (n.d.). Transitional objects and potential spaces: literary uses of D.W. Winnicott.